The navigation system is one of the most important things in transportation, be it air, land or sea. The navigation system aims to provide direction and make it easier for humans to find directions to a destination. Like an airplane for example, a pilot can easily fly an airplane thanks to a navigation system in the form of a radar. Also included in ships sailing across the oceans, navigation is very important so that the captain can direct the ship precisely to the contents. The navigation system is one of the ship’s equipment that supports the smooth voyage of ships like this amnautical.com.
History of the navigation system
The western civilization that first used the concept of a navigation system was the Phoenicians. About 4,000 years ago, fishermen and sailors from Phenicia succeeded in implementing a marine navigation system. They used primitive graphical charts and observations of the sun and stars to determine direction. Even so, it took centuries for marine navigation systems to advance. In the 15th century, sailing on the high seas was restricted.
This is because there are several unpredictable wind currents and waves due to the lack of technology in ancient times. In 1735, John Hadley, a sailor from England, invented the chronometer. He found a chronometer by making one of four high-accuracy clocks that display the home port time. In addition, the chronometer can determine latitude lines through time differences.
In 1941, advances in marine navigation systems began to show rapid progress. In the same year, Siegefried Reisch, a researcher from Germany, developed the principle of Inertial Navigation. Inertial Navigation itself calculates relative location changes based on acceleration. In 1978, the first GPS satellites were started. Initially, the Department of Defense of the United States initiated the “NAVSTAR” project for military purposes. This project later became the forerunner of the GPS (Global Positioning System).
In 1983, GPS began to be used for civilians – including use in marine shipping. In 1990, the mobile navigation system was started by Mitsubishi and Pioneer separately. They introduced the first GPS navigation used in automobiles. In 2001, the “GALILEO” project was started by the European Union. This is a satellite navigation project. These satellites will then assist GPS. And now, the times are getting more sophisticated, the navigation system is getting more advanced.
Advantages of the navigation system
The navigation system is a very important ship tool for shipping ships. This makes it easier for the captain to direct the ship to its destination. In addition, the navigation system prevents misdirection or straying into places that are not even known to the captain. Because when sailing, the ship will be in a very wide and loose sea. At that time, the navigation system will greatly assist the shipping of ships to reach their destination. Now, with advances in technology, there are many sophisticated navigation tools on ships. What’s more, workers and ship captains have begun to be intensively trained to know the functions and how to operate ship navigation tools. This of course will make sailing in the sea smoother and safer.
The first ship navigation tool was the Gyro Compass or Gyro Compass. Gyro compass is a navigation tool used to find the right direction or direction. Another case with a magnetic compass, the gyro compass does not use magnets and is also not obstructed by external magnetic fields. It is used to find the correct position of north, which is also the earth’s axis of rotation. This is useful for providing a stable, non-changing directional source. The repeater system of this gyro compass must have a steering platform in case of an emergency situation.
Apart from the gyro compass, there is another tool, namely the radar. Radar is a common navigation tool. Radar is also often found in other transportation such as aircraft. However, the way radar works on ships is a little different. Marine ships rely on S-band and X-band frequency radiation systems for navigation. This is due to the ease with which it detects targets.
Apart from that, the radar can also display information on the screen such as the ship’s distance from land, floating objects and other ships. This can be useful for the captain to control the ship so that it is not hit by obstacles such as rocks or icebergs. Apart from that, the radar also increases the level of security by detecting possible foreign vessels. It can be used to prepare yourself and avoid wandering pirates.
Another marine navigation tool is a magnetic compass. This tool uses the earth’s magnetic field to indicate direction. The magnetic compass is used to find the course planned for a voyage. The magnetic compass is usually installed in the center line of the ship, precisely above the bridge deck.
Auto pilot and ARPA
There is also another navigation tool, namely Auto Pilot. Auto pilot is considered as one of the most effective navigation tools because it helps the captain in controlling the ship. Moreover, the ship can also direct itself to a predetermined destination. Auto pilot is usually used when the ship concentrates on a broad aspect of the operation.
The last navigation tool available on ships is ARPA (Automatic Radar Plotting Aid). In Indonesian this tool is also known as Automatic Radar Assistance. This tool displays the position of ships and other ships in the vicinity. ARPA displays the position of ships around it and selects the safest route so that it avoids a collision. This navigation equipment constantly monitors the ship’s surroundings. Automatically, it also gets the target number (ship, boat, stationary ship or floating object). After that, these tools plot their respective speed and bow. This tool is one of the most advanced marine navigation tools.